The Bachelor's degree is the first step in scientific formation, allowing students to acquire a methodological and scientific approach to their education. A bachelor's degree is a diploma awarded at the successful completion of an undergraduate academic program.
Students usually need about four years of study to complete it, though this can vary depending on the school attended. A four-year degree demonstrates that a student has a general and broad education with a focus on a particular subject area.
There are a number of types of degrees that can be earned in a range of academic fields, and many students continue with a postgraduate program afterward.
There are several types of bachelor's degrees available to students, including the Bachelor of Arts (BA) and Bachelor of Science (BS). The BS degree is geared towards those who want to branch out into subjects like medicine, biology, and psychology, while the BA is given to those who complete coursework in humanities and the arts. Some other popular bachelor's degrees include the Bachelor of Applied Science, the Bachelor of Economics, and the Bachelor of Fine Arts.
In the Bologna system (EU), one academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System) credits, which are equivalent to 1,500-1,800 hours of study. This includes contact hours (lectures, seminars, practical work, etc.), as well as independent study at home or in a library. Attainment of the Bachelor's degree requires three years of full-time study (180 ECTS-credits). Depending on the school, a certain number of these credits must be earned in different areas; for example, some core courses in math and writing may be required, while a significant number of credits must usually be earned in the student's area of major study.
Once a student has earned a bachelor's degree, he or she may decide to continue his or her education and study toward earning a master's degree or a doctorate. The Bachelor's degree is a pre-requisite for enrolment in a Master's programme.
Master's degree programs entail classes, similar to your undergraduate classes. However the classes are usually conducted as seminars, with a great deal of discussion. The professors tend to expect a higher level of analysis in master's classes than undergraduate classes. In this second cycle of studies, the student will further advance his or her knowledge and specialize in a particular field, or acquire an interdisciplinary formation. This programme is completed with the writing of a master's thesis.
The prerequisite for access to a Master's programme is a successfully completed Bachelor's programme. Each university makes its own decisions as to whether a Bachelor's degree obtained in a foreign country gives its holder access to Master's programmes with or without entrance examinations, under certain conditions, with further requirements, or no access at all. The university may set additional requirements, equally applicable to all candidates, for admission to specialized Master's programmes.
Most master's degree programs require students to complete a master's thesis, or an extended research paper. Depending on the field, your master's thesis may entail conducting a thorough analysis of the literature or a scientific experiment. Some master's programs offer alternatives to the master's thesis, such as written comprehensive exams or other written projects that are less rigorous than theses. In service-oriented fields like clinical and counselling psychology, and social work, master's degrees usually include a practicum or internship in which you learn applied skills like how to perform therapy.
The most common master's degrees are the Master of Arts (MA) and Master of Science (MS). Note that whether you earn an MA or MS depends more on the school you attend than the academic requirements fulfilled; the two are different only in name - not in educational requirements or status. Master's degrees are offered in a variety of fields (e.g., psychology, mathematics, biology, etc.), just as bachelor's degrees are offered in many fields. Some fields have special degrees, like the MSW for social work and the MBA for business.
In the Bologna system (EU), a Master's programme lasts three to four semesters (depending on the field of study) and awards 90 to 120 ECTS credits.
A master's degree will allow you to develop expertise in a new area and enter a new career.
Ph.D. / Doctorate Degree
A Doctor of Philosophy degree, abbreviated Ph.D., is the highest academic degree anyone can earn. Because earning a Ph.D. requires extended study and intense intellectual effort. To earn a Ph.D., one must accomplish two things: master a specific subject completely, and extend the body of knowledge about that subject. Research doctorate degrees are generally awarded after 3-5 years of postgraduate research and study, and submission of a thesis. Depending on the program, a PhD could take 3-8 years to complete.
Each university establishes general guidelines that a student must follow to earn a Ph.D. degree, and each college or department within a university sets specific standards by which it measures mastery of a subject..
To complete a Ph.D., each student must present results from their research to the faculty in a lengthy, formal document called a dissertation (more popularly referred to as a thesis). The student must then submit their dissertation to the faculty and defend their work an oral examination. Application to a doctoral programme is subject to specific conditions, the most important of which are the acceptance of the thesis proposal by the Faculty and a professor willing to be the supervisor. For international students, the application process can take some time. It is therefore advisable to carefully check each university's website for conditions of admission.
Most doctoral programs offer various forms of financial aid, from assistantantships to scholarships to loans. The availability and forms of aid vary by discipline (e.g., those in which faculty conduct research sponsored by large grants are more likely to hire students in exchange for tuition) and by institution.
Certificate Programme & Distance Learning
A Certificate Programme is a program of education that results in a certificate of completion rather than a degree. Many Certificate Programmes being offered by colleges and universities. In general, certificate programmes either prepare students to complete a specific task or educate them about one particular aspect of their field. Sometimes, certificate programmes offer you an alternative academic credential to the lengthier undergraduate or graduate degree programmes.
Certificate Programmes will be announced prior to the programme opening.Distance Learning
Distance Learning is an instructional delivery system that connects learners with educational resources.
The majority of distance education today takes place using the Internet, now readily accessible for the vast majority of students whether in their own homes or at facilities such as local libraries.
These electronic means are used to distribute the learning material, keep students in touch with teachers, and provide access to communication between students. Online programs often take advantage of a number of emerging technologies to make keeping in touch and effectively communicating ideas easier and more efficient than ever before and students may find themselves using interactive videos, e-mail, and discussion boards to complete their lessons. With more flexibility comes more responsibility on the part of the learner. Students must learn to work well independently and without the constant guidance and monitoring of an instructor, making distance learning a challenge for those who are not easily self-motivated.
These types of programs can provide adults with a second chance at a college education, reach those disadvantaged by limited time, distance or physical disability, and update the knowledge base of workers at their places of employment. distance learning enables you to learn in your own time, at home or wherever you choose reading, watching or listening to material supplied, doing course activities and assignments with regular support from your tutor.
Instructors from grade school to college are using the potential of distance learning to teach students from all around the globe and allow them to work collaboratively on projects, degrees-focused content and educational enrichment.
Distance education has become an increasingly popular way for colleges to provide access to their programs and for students to learn about topics and get degrees.